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real progress was made in the general diffusion of the Hellenic
kind of education. Just as Athens had been " the educator of
Greece/* so Greece now became the educational leader of the
nations. The very idea of a school came to them from Greece,
and in the institution of their own schools they borrowed freely
not only the subjects and methods but even the materials of study.
Yet their borrowing was not done in a slavish spirit. Each nation
took what it needed from the storehouse of Greek example and
adapted it to its own peculiar circumstances. This is specially
true with regard to Gncco-Jewish and Grseco-Roman education,
the two links of connection between the education of Greece and
that of modern Europe* Both, as we shall see, owed much to
Greek precedent, but each had an individuality as well-defined
as the national genius in which it had its origin* That was how
the Hellenic spirit did its work.



The Macedonian supremacy made no great difference to

the ordinary Greek education up to the ephebic stage.   In an

argument designed to show the excess of pain over pleasure in

life, Teles the Cynic (sometime after 300 B.C.) gives a rapid

sketch of a boy's educational troubles, which shows a course of

studies much the same as that of the new education.   " When

the child has got out of the nurse's hands, he is laid hold of by

the pedagogue, the gymnastic trainer, the teacher of letters, the

music teacher and the drawing teacher.   In course of time he

gets the arithmetician, the geometrician and the riding master.

He becomes an cphebus, and then he lives in dread of the marshal,

the gymnastic trainer, the fencing master and the gymnasiarch."*

But for the addition of drawing (which Aristotle, however, had

included in his scheme), the primary studies to which reference

is made are just what they had been a hundred years before*

The secondary studies are rather more modest in their scope, no

mention being made of rhetoric or philosophy, or even of the

literary studies which began to be taken up under the supervision

of the " critic " or " grammarian " (^m/i^artKo^ about the time

that Teles wrote.

* Quoted Waldos, UwvtrMtfa <tf Ancm* GTMG*, p. *oĽ